As with the majority of combat sports, Muay Thai places great emphasis on fitness and conditioning.
Training exercises include those familiar to a boxers regime, but there are naturally some notable exceptions. One such exception is the conditioning of the shin bone to harden it, as Thai Boxers rely a lot on kicks using the shin bone.
To toughen up this area of their legs, Thai Boxers will repeatedly strike a densely filled heavy bag, which is highly advisable over the dangerous practice of striking tree trunks or other solid objects which can obviously damage your shins. By conditioning the shin correctly, fighters harden the bone via a process called cortical remodeling.
As far as training equipment goes, the Thai Pad is an essential piece of equipment that allows fighters to practice their kicking, punches, knees and elbow strikes with considerable force due to the densely padded nature of this kind of pad. It is also common for the trainer to wear a Body Protector to allow the fighter to practice their straight kicks and knees to the body.
As with boxing, Focus Mitt pad work sessions are effective ways for a Muay Thai fighter to develop their striking speed and accuracy, as well introducing some Heavy Bag work for developing power. There are gloves available that are more suitable and specific for more Muay Thai also. Such gloves tend to have padded palms and are more flexible than boxing gloves, allowing fighters to hold and clinch their opponents more easily.
Due to the relatively busy schedule of professional Thai Boxers, their sparring sessions are often light in terms of contact to avoid the risk of injury between fights. During sparring sessions, more emphasis is placed on perfecting timing, techniques, range and honing pre fight strategies.
So there you have it, a very brief breakdown in to the training regime and the kind of equipment used for a discipline that is amongst the most physically demanding of any of the martial arts.